In the 19th century, the Sami of Lapland, whose traditional way of life is closely connected to reindeer husbandry, found their rights much curtailed. Their hunting rights were restricted in their traditional area of settlement across northern Norway, Sweden and Finland, while the growth of tourism and the increasing industrialization of the North deprived them of their livelihoods. Sami were displayed in travelling shows, and folkloristic photographs such as this one depicted them as representing a lower stage of cultural development. Only from the mid-20th century did the Sami gradually succeed in asserting their right to cultural self-determination. Besides the Sami Council as the umbrella organization of national Sami parliaments, Sami radio stations and a Sami museum at Karasjok were founded.
A Lapp family, Norway, colour photograph, ca. 1890–1900, unknown photographer; source: Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsc-06257, public domain.