National Socialism destroyed and displaced the unique culture of the short-lived Weimar Republic The forced emigration of most of its representatives meant that rather than being obliterated this culture was exported and preserved on the other side of the Atlantic, where (in the USA) it still has something of a mythical status. It is no mere coincidence that it was Peter Gay who coined the term "Weimar Culture" in his seminal study "Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider". Gay was born in 1923 in Berlin and fled in 1939 with his parents from Nazi Germany to the United States, where he went on to become a prominent American historian.
The French Revolution provoked one of modern history's massive waves of political migration. Émigrés from all levels of French society dispersed throughout Europe and the Atlantic world in the 1790s. Representing a broad spectrum of political views, the émigrés mobilized their host societies against the Revolution, which grew increasingly radical as it spilled across France's boundaries. At the same time, they became agents in a multifaceted process of cultural transfer, not least as part of their attempt to make a living in exile. They demonstrated that there were alternatives to the revolutionary process outside of France, before most of them returned to France under Napoleon Bonaparte.