At the Congress of Vienna (1814–1815), the borders of the European states were redrawn after the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte (1769–1821). In addition to numerous territorial changes, which included the foundation of the United Netherlands and the expansion of the state territory of Prussia, the Congress also founded the Holy Alliance and the German Confederation.
Alfred Baldamus (1856–1908), Europe after the Congress of Vienna 1815, coloured drawing, scan: Massimo Macconi, in: F. W. Putzgers historischer Schul-Atlas zur alten, mittleren und neuen Geschichte, Bielefeld et al. 1918, p. 104; source: Wikimedia Commons, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Europa1814.jpg?uselang=de. Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 Germany.