Following his studies, the author, philosopher and theologian Johann Gottfried (since 1802) von Herder initially worked as a clergyman. He travelled extensively in France, Holland and Italy. His writings concentrated mainly on linguistic theory (Abhandlung über den Ursprung der Sprache, 1772), the philosophy of history (Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit, 1784–1791) and the history of literature and culture (Über die neuere Deutsche Litteratur, 1767; Von deutscher Art und Kunst, 1773), many of which presented ground-breaking theories. He also contributed to the "Sturm und Drang" movement and influenced 19th century philosophy (Hegel, Schelling) as well as the poetry of the Romantic Movement.
John Sartain (1808–1897), Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803), mezzotint engraving of a sketch from Buri, date unknown [1828–1880]; source: Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov, Prints and Photographs Division, http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c30300, no known restrictions on publication.