The French writer Romain Rolland distinguished himself, not only in the writing of dramas and novels (Nobel Prize for Literature 1915), but also as a committed pacifist and champion of a supranational community of nations. Already at the outbreak of World War I, he was among the first European intellectuals to oppose the general war enthusiasm and one of the public figures who tried to give form to the European idea. During the 1930s, he opposed Fascism and National Socialism. He supported international cooperation among intellectuals and with the publication of the Journal Europe in 1923 created a forum for such efforts.
Romain Rolland (1866–1944), black-and-white photograph, unknown date, photographer unknown; source: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division Washington, http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ggbain.20505.