Mahmud II was the twenty-ninth Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, ruling from 1808 to 1839.
Portrait of Sultan Mahmud II (ca. 1785–1839), 1902, unknown artist, source: Helmolt, H. F. (ed.): History of the World, New York 1902. Digitalized version: The University of Texas at Austin, http://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/exhibits/portraits/index.php?img=248; courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin.